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buell homework Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. Essay On Racial. #9;Every fall excitement fills the air as students arrive at medieval school with new backpacks and school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the start of essay profiling school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the best year ever. Yet within weeks of the start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to mla handbook papers turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and threaten to call home and talk to their mom and dad. Occasionally, this will work and essay, the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the time there are just excuses. More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the evaluation student#146;s grades drop and he or she will feel like a failure. The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the value and effect of expository profiling homework. Mla Handbook. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time. I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to understand more about their perceptions of homework and to find out expository essay on racial profiling what kind of support they were receiving at home.
Perhaps, these students do not understand the mla handbook of research homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the profiling instructions were unclear or the homework is too difficult for them. Types Of Constructing An Essay. I wanted to understand more about their parents#146; views about essay on racial profiling school and homework. I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. What are some things that I could do to help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. I saw homework is an precis essay important part of their schoolwork and expository on racial, is a reinforcement of evaluation what is learned at expository school. This extra practice is helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about 15 miles outside of Washington, DC.
At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to college help a year round calendar. On the year round calendar school is in session for expository essay on racial, nine weeks and applied essay legisprudence philosophy practice, then there is a two or three week intersession break. During the intersession remediation and enrichment classes are offered to expository students. The cost of attending intersession is five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is comprised of single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school. The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Rhetorical Precis Essay. Many of the townhouses house more than one family.
There is a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. On Racial Profiling. Seventy-five percent of the medieval school is composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. More than 22 countries and on racial profiling, many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families. Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the entrance essay help students receive free or reduced lunches.
The school is organized primarily into self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in essay profiling, the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on homework based on grade level. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of homework per evening. The school slogan is Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and entrance, I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years.
I am an Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is composed of profiling 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out for writer papers of the 18 are ESOL students. Eight of the essay profiling students speak Spanish at essay in legal legislation practice theory home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and 1 speaks another language. Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and expository profiling, usually includes spelling, reading, and math. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out in legal philosophy their homework and stack it on a table at on racial the back of the room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time.
Selecting a Focus Group. As I looked over my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework. For Writer. Two of the boys, Jose and expository, Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is entrance writing help, African-American. Expository. Originally I decided to art coursework look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. So, I had two students to focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose. Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is a third grade, ESOL student. His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. Jose has helped translate a few words for me before.
He is the oldest child in his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister. His father and mother both work full-time. On Racial Profiling. His father often has to work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures. Entrance Essay Writing Help. Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. Expository Essay On Racial Profiling. He is well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and art coursework evaluation, girls, in his class.
He is reading on grade level, but his writing and essay, math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments. As I considered my puzzlement over applied essay in legal legislation philosophy practice students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation. My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and expository essay on racial, do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework. Proponents for homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere. Art Coursework Evaluation. In addition, homework can promote independence and responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school.
Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the disparity between students from low-income homes and students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at expository essay on racial profiling home and what is art essay, emphasized at school. Expository On Racial Profiling. My belief that homework is important and medieval art essay, should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. Essay. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is emphasized in rhetorical precis essay, school. They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for expository essay, their children by providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences. Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework.
It is also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is of constructing an essay, conveyed to students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. Expository. He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. Another outside influence might be the economic situation of the family. The family may be struggling to make ends meet and medieval, there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the amount of homework that I give.
After considering all of the possible cultural influences, I decided to narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. Expository. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the strongest influences on young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework.
The school culture emphasizes an importance on homework and art coursework evaluation, this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by his/her teacher and expository essay on racial profiling, how successful he/she is academically. In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs. I chose to look at precis these by journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening. Profiling. My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation.
If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. After reflecting and medieval, journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about homework and find out how much homework the essay profiling other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to be gathered about applied essay in legal legislation legisprudence philosophy practice theory a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and expository on racial profiling, the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of. If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to in legal philosophy practice theory look at the school culture and then to look at the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. In order to find out expository more information about art coursework Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents.
I sent many notes home, called home and tried to leave messages. Eventually I was able to speak to Jose#146;s father. I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. On Racial. J., 1995) to try to determine what the home environment and culture was like as well as to find out essay philosophy what their attitude was toward homework. On Racial Profiling. I looked at applied in legal legislation philosophy Jose#146;s school history and expository on racial profiling, contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in applied in legal legislation legisprudence theory, an environment where receiving and doing homework was part of a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school. By the on racial profiling time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the types of constructing habit of doing homework independently. Expository Profiling. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and reinforces concepts. The question I have to types of constructing ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students?
In order to answer this question I decided to essay on racial look at some research that has been done on the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and negative effects on art essay students. According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in expository essay profiling, students and involving parents in what is going on in the classroom. Types An Essay. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and the benefits of expository essay profiling wholesome learning from art coursework evaluation scouts or sports. Homework can lead to on racial profiling cheating and can emphasize the for writer papers disparity between the homes of low-income and expository on racial profiling, middle class students. Students from rhetorical low-income homes may have to on racial profiling work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at home. Of Research Papers. When looking at profiling 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of homework on academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. Rhetorical Precis. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. Expository Essay. These benefits matched the medieval benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997).
Homework improved my ability to expository profiling cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and the next one. Although homework benefited me, as the medieval teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out homework to students. According to Kralovec and Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only expository essay, spelling and reading as homework.
Every once in a while he would give math homework. The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and medieval art essay, reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to expository on racial collect and to grade. I decided to go back and interview the art coursework other third grade teachers to find out expository essay what their beliefs about homework were. Essay. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework. Expository On Racial. He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at applied in legal legislation philosophy the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and homework will not necessarily help them achieve.
The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of on racial what is taught in school and medieval art essay, he felt that it made a difference in expository, their achievement at school. He said that he could tell the legislation legisprudence theory next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework. Expository On Racial. He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and medieval, build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and differences in expository on racial profiling, the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of mla handbook of research papers home and school. On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework.
Any homework given out in essay on racial, addition to this is up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for Teachers which was published by the school district. This guide was handed out at a staff meeting at the beginning of the essay school year and essay profiling, teachers were encouraged to use it as a guide. Mla Handbook For Writer Of Research. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff. According to essay on racial the guide the purpose of precis essay homework is to on racial profiling practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. The guide does not discuss the amount of homework to be given. Any homework, aside from the entrance essay daily reading, is up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about essay on racial Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and art coursework, phone calls home. Essay. After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door. It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for him. I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the meeting would go as we did not have a translator.
After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of a grasp of the applied philosophy English language for us to be able to communicate without a translator. Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about his job and Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at home. He seemed very responsive and concerned. Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at profiling work and his father is either at work or sleeping. For Writer Papers. His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to watch him. Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework.
He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to profiling go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of mla handbook paper that looked like homework. Essay Profiling. His father didn#146;t ask about applied essay legisprudence philosophy practice it and forgot about it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and maybe this would help Jose do his homework and bring it to expository profiling school. Rhetorical Essay. The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by either parent. #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about their son and expository essay profiling, his success in school. However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn. Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of in legal legislation legisprudence philosophy cultural diversity. Profiling. They were providing nonacademic experiences for their son that they felt were important for his development as a person.
In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to his work schedule to encourage and help Jose. I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to types of constructing an essay school with Jose. I have only seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to do his homework Jose may have been getting the expository profiling message that homework was not valuable to his parents. Art Coursework. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and expository profiling, Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to rhetorical precis essay school quite disheveled and without any homework.
When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in school and sometimes was able to bring in finished homework. Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by his father#146;s work schedule. Tapia (1998) indicated that the essay on racial profiling most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is medieval, family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to be affected by seeing his father regularly during the afternoon and expository on racial, evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to medieval art essay my whole class and expository essay on racial, read it to them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for a grade and legislation legisprudence philosophy theory, they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong.
Some sample questions from the survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework. - I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and essay, give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the questions that students did not understand. As I looked over the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to self-report because of their young age and their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in art coursework, his homework. Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to expository essay on racial do their homework. Half the class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and art coursework, he thinks homework is important only expository essay profiling, some of the time.
Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to medieval do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to expository on racial change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life. It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in medieval, poverty from being poor. Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for expository essay, their children to medieval art essay learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about profiling Tae Kwon Do lessons and other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to them for their son to be trained in some kind of sport.
They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about his homework they did not ask to see his homework. They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the time or energy to look at his homework. They both worked long hours and it is possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1). It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is mla handbook, occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to give less challenging homework. Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on expository essay on racial his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to types of constructing an essay examination give more homework that was self-explanatory and expository, made sure that he understood all the directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to medieval art essay begin his homework at on racial profiling school.
I let him start his homework at school. Precis. I noticed that the expository essay next day sometimes the only part he would have to turn in was the part he had started in school. Jose seemed to have difficulty getting his homework from school to home and then back to mla handbook for writer of research school. So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the essay materials he needed for home, put them in of constructing, his backpack. Expository Profiling. His father was given a matching one to keep at home. Before leaving to rhetorical go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and expository on racial profiling, encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to mla handbook check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. Essay. He lost the for writer papers Velcro check for on racial profiling, his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it.
He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. For about two weeks I reminded him that he needed to medieval art essay see me before he walked out the door. Now he remembers on his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack. He comes up to me with his backpack open and his homework at the top so I can see it. Essay Profiling. I send informal weekly progress reports home to his parents so that they know how he is doing in school and whether or not he has been turning in his homework. Of Constructing. Summary and Implications. After all the interventions and monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about half the time. For the first half of the year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and on racial profiling, the ones he turned in were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is just as important as doing work in school. I also have a better understanding of art coursework his home situation and expository essay on racial, that although his parents want him to do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to learn. The communication between home and school is definitely better.
In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to work on homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and research on the benefits and negative effects of homework on students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and the amount of applied legislation legisprudence theory homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and values about homework really contributed to expository profiling my puzzlement. I have really been considering and medieval art essay, debating within myself the issue of homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and expository essay on racial profiling, background on students and making them relive how I went through school. Do I give homework for essay legislation legisprudence practice, character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in expository profiling, the morning.
Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the day or building community in the classroom. Although the school and school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework. Students like Jose seemed to be overwhelmed with the amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the individual student as necessary. Applied Philosophy Practice Theory. Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for all #151; in moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38.
Gajria, M. Salend, S. J. (1995). Homework practices of students with and without learning disabilities: A comparison. Expository On Racial Profiling. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. (1995). In Legal Legislation Legisprudence Theory. The funds of knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6. Kralovec, E. Buell, J. On Racial. (2001). End homework now. Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. Rhetorical Precis. (1998).
The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.
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Slope Of The Yield Curve Finance Essay. For a person who values his money and wishes to invest it, he must consider the type of security he will invest in, the company that issued the security, the time of his investment and more importantly, the essay profiling, risk that comes with every security traded in the market. Investment or securities with high returns can be attractive but every investor should be careful with the risk that comes along with it. As much as everyone wants a high return for their investment, this would mean that investors have to assume higher risks as well. Having sufficient information and knowledge on the type of security an investor seeks to invest in and the market where the security belongs is a great advantage. Without sufficient information and knowledge on the risks incorporated with the security or investment, investors would be incurring losses more than they should. This is the reason why factors affecting risks in an investment and the premium investors get for assuming additional risk, deserve attention and research.
In relation to college entrance writing help what the profiling, researchers quoted above, this study will focus on the determinants of credit spread changes in the Philippine government bond market mainly the U.S. Dollar-denominated Republic of the Philippines bonds issued in the years 2005-2011. The credit spread reflects the premium for default risk over an otherwise riskless security (Batten, et al., 2006). The researchers want to determine if macroeconomic variables, such as stock market index, foreign exchange rate, bond yield and slope of the essay, yield curve have strong explanatory power in credit spread changes. According to a report of the expository on racial, Asian Development Bank, the Philippine bond market grew 12.4% to P3.7 trillion as of end-June 2012 the positive outlook for the country fueled buying and issuance of fixed-income instruments. Mr. Types An Essay. Amando Tetangco, Jr., the expository on racial, Governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, said that in 2009, issuances of domestic government securities continue to be the primary source of funding with a ratio of more than two-thirds of the total borrowing mix. Philippine government securities are mainly made up of Treasury bills and Treasury bonds, which are also known as Fixed-rate Treasury Notes (FXTNs) (ADB, 2012).
There are also Retail Treasury bonds (RTBs) that are intended to make government securities available to retail investors as well as create savings consciousness. The Philippine government does not only essay in legal legisprudence, issue domestic government securities, but also foreign-denominated government securities which are the Republic of the Philippines (ROP) bonds. This kind of bonds that pays out semi-annual coupons are usually USD- and EUR-denominated and are free from final withholding tax on interest income. On Racial Profiling. These USD-denominated ROPs will be the subject or highlight of this research. According to Investing in Bonds.com (2009),
The U.S. Treasury securities market is the largest and most liquid market in the world. There is currently $7.89 trillion in outstanding marketable Treasury debt. College Essay Help. The U.S. Treasury issues three types of securities: bills, which have a maturity of less than 1 year; notes, which have a maturity of expository essay on racial between one and 10 years; and bonds, which have a maturity of greater than 10 years. The US Government, particularly, the U.S. Department of Treasury issues U.S. Treasury Notes or Bonds (T-Notes or T-Bonds) which are also known as U.S.
Treasuries, U.S. Treasury Bills (T-Bills), U.S. Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) and lastly, U.S. Treasury STRIPS like U.S. Treasury Zero Coupon Bonds (Zeros). U.S. Treasury Notes and Bonds possess the college entrance writing help, same characteristics except for their tenor because T-Notes maturities are 2, 5 and 10 years while T-Bonds mature in more than 10 years but less than 30 years.
Coupons for both securities are paid out expository essay, semi-annually. Most of the time, U.S. An Essay. Treasuries are used as benchmark for many markets because it is believed to be free of on racial profiling default risk. The health of the college help, U.S. Treasury Market is being affected by the crisis in Europe. As the crisis goes worse, the U.S. bond market will continue to underperform. According to Wastler (2012), if people are considering U.S. Treasury bonds for investment, they now have to think twice. Aside from the movement of interest rates, the increasing size of debt of the US Government places a question on essay on racial profiling, their ability to pay their outstanding obligations. Pricing of U.S. Treasuries is similar to the valuation of ROP Bonds although the of constructing an essay examination, former uses a different market convention in terms of day-counting as well as secondary market price quotation (Wee Sit, 2012).
As a market convention, yields of ROP bonds are priced and benchmarked against that of U.S. Treasuries. Credit spread is defined as measured by the difference between a corporate and a government bond yield of the same maturity (Lepone Wong, 2009), which is normally expressed in basis points. Expository Essay On Racial Profiling. In our case, the study on credit spread will involve U.S. Treasury bonds as the applied in legal legislation philosophy practice theory, benchmark and the Republic of the Philippines (ROP) bonds, which are U.S. dollar-denominated bonds, as the risky asset. Essay On Racial. This difference reflects the market's assessment of default risk which shows the relative riskiness of different debt categories through the differences of the spreads among borrowers (Boss Scheicher, 2002).
Credit spread movements may reveal shifts in the supply of funds provided by financial intermediaries; such that a drop in the supply of credit causes the cost of debt finance to art coursework increase, thereby widening credit spreads which may subsequently cut spending and essay on racial profiling production (Gilchrist Zakrajsek, 2011). Credit spreads are also used to types of constructing an essay assess the expository essay, probability of art coursework evaluation a company's default, determine the financial market's general function, preserve financial stability, and evaluate the expository profiling, consequences of monetary policy measures through the interaction between corporate bonds, government bonds, and money markets (Musio, 2006). With this information at hand, there is a need to study the medieval art essay, determinants of credit spread changes. 1. 2 A Statement of the Problem. What are the determinants of credit spread changes in ROP bonds issued in the years 2005 - 2011? 1.3 Objectives of the Study. The main objective of the study is to determine the expository on racial profiling, effects of the changes in the bond yield, slope of the yield curve, returns on essay writing help, the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index (PSEi), and foreign exchange rate on credit spread changes of ROP bonds for the periods 2005-2011.
It aims to determine whether default risk variables have significant effects on expository on racial profiling, the changes in medieval, credit spread. Also, this study aims to determine whether liquidity variables have significant effects on the changes in credit spread. It intends to make investors aware of the factors that they have to consider in measuring the risk and return of the security they buy so they can take advantage of the movements of the market. Ho: The changes in the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in expository essay on racial, the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have a significant effect on credit spread. Ho: The changes in the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield less the changes in the 2-US treasury bond yield have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield less the changes in the 2-year US treasury bond yield have a significant effect on credit spread. Ho: The changes in the squared value of the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the squared value of the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have a significant effect on types examination, credit spread.
Ho: The changes in expository essay on racial, the lagged returns of the PSEi have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in art coursework, the lagged returns of the PSEi have a significant effect on credit spread. Ho: The changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate have a significant effect on credit spread. 1.5 Significance of the Study. This study will add literature to the scarce amount of studies about credit spreads. It will give additional research information for the use of the academe. Researchers will have supplementary material for reference on the pursuit of a study on the same subject. Foreign researchers who wish to conduct a study of expository essay on racial profiling their own country's securities benchmarked against another country's securities or with the U.S. as well can use our research as another guide and related literature on the subject, amongst the others.
Local and foreign investors will be able to see the importance of credit spreads in the bonds that they invest to and they will be able to assess the risks incorporated with each bond so they can measure and evaluate it based on their own scale of mla handbook for writer papers risk tolerance or appetite. Studying credit spreads which reflects the premium for default risk over an otherwise riskless security will also inform investors of the additional return they get in exchange of assuming additional risk. It will help them assess the issuer of the security whether they give satisfactory and justified returns to on racial profiling their investors. The Philippine government will assess the effects of different factors to the credit spread of ROP bonds benchmarked against U.S. Types An Essay. Treasuries so they can possibly regulate them more and on racial profiling lessen the art coursework evaluation, credit spread in the bonds they issue. They can adjust the credit spreads through the factors that significantly affect it, making them pay less premium to their creditors. 1. 6 Scope and Limitations. The study will focus on the determinants of credit spread changes of U.S. Dollar- denominated ROP Bonds for the years 2005-2011.
The variables that will be used in the study are the changes in the bond yield, changes in the squared value of the bond yield and changes in the slope of the yield curve which are the variables that capture default risk. Also included are changes in the lagged of PSEi returns and changes in the exchange rate as market variables. Limitations of the study, on the other hand, are the expository essay, researchers' lack of direct access to medieval art essay Bloomberg or any database that provides the data necessary to conduct the study. Another limitation for this study is the expository, absence of a developed options and futures market in the Philippines. Due to this limitation, variables regarding derivatives are removed from the data. Review of Related Literature.
This chapter shall present the variables used through the discussion of different journals of past studies related to the main topic of for writer papers this research. Essay. The chapter will also present the medieval, gap between the studies done in the past and the study to be done by the researchers. 2.1. Description of Each Variable Used. Credit spread, as defined by Lepone and Wong (2009) is the expository essay profiling, difference of two bond yields, corporate and government, with the same tenor. College Entrance Essay. In their study, they found out that the movements of the credit spread in essay on racial profiling, past observations happen before any notable movements in the stock markets and the economy occurs. This is supported by Gilchrist and Zakrajsek in their study done in 2010. They defined credit spread as the difference of the yields of diverse debt instruments of private entities and the securities issued by the government. A It is a critical measure for the default risk and other sorts of financial problems in the financial system.
Credit spread is an art essay, effective instrument to foresee future growth in the economy throughout different economic indicators (Gilchrist and Zakrajsek, 2010). Credit spread changes also suggest movements in the amount of lending provided by financial institutions. This, in turn, adds more emphasis on the importance of credit spread changes in forecasting economic movements in expository essay on racial, the future. Of Constructing An Essay Examination. One of the studies done show that a decrease in the balance sheet of financial institutions and other financial intermediaries create a lower supply of loans. On the other hand, a decrease in the balance sheet would lead to an increase in on racial profiling, credit spread. With this, the impact of an increase in medieval, credit spread movement show a possible decrease in the level of spending and production, thus, a weaker economy (Gilchrist and Zakrajsek, 2010).A A A. 2.1.2. Essay On Racial Profiling. Changes in the 10-year Government Bond Yield. According to the study of medieval art essay Lepone and expository Wong (2009), the mla handbook for writer papers, 10-year government bond yield is used as a proxy for the spot rate. Expository Essay On Racial. The spot rate is an important variable in the structural models of default proposed by Black and Scholes (1973) and Merton (1974). The result of their study states that changes in the spot rate has a negative relationship to credit spreads and that it is an mla handbook for writer papers, important variable in determining credit spreads which is also true in the study of Yap and Gannon (2007).
Longstaff and Schwartz (1992) argue that spreads and the risk-free rate should exhibit a negative relationship because an increase in the risk-free rate of the bond also increases that risk-neutral drift of the on racial, process that describes firm value and thus reduces the probability of default. Molano (2003), looked at the credit spreads of emerging markets and found that they are sensitive to the monetary of U.S. It is believed that U.S. treasury yields are highly correlated with the yields of art essay emerging markets when interest rates are increasing. Yap and Gannon (2007) illustrated in their study that Malaysian bonds have varying degrees of cointegration with U.S. risk-free rate of longer to maturity. The changes in the squared value of the essay profiling, 10-year government bond is included in the study of art coursework evaluation Lepone and Wong (2009), to capture the non-linear effects of the term structure. The term structure of interest rates is the relationship between the yields of the securities and their time to maturity. The term structure can be taken in a form of a graph called the yield curve. This yield curve normally has an expository on racial profiling, increasing slope and curves as the time to maturity increases.
This curvature is the one that should be taken into account. Precis. This variable is statistically significant; however, in the study of Batten, Fetherson, and Hoontrakul (2006), the emerged coefficient is small and generally not economically significant. 2.1.3. Changes in expository on racial, the Slope of the Yield Curve. Lepone and types of constructing Wong (2009), in their study, considered the slope of the yield curve as an important determinant of credit spreads. They defined the slope as the on racial profiling, difference between the yield of the ten year government bond yield and the three year government bond yield. By subtracting these two bond yields, the variable gives a broad view of the country's economic conditions (Lepone and Wong, 2009). A negative relationship is expected to from the changes in the slope of the yield curve to of constructing an essay examination the changes in credit spreads. Expository Essay On Racial. As stated in the research done by Miloudi and Moraux (2009), the slope of the yield curve may be interpreted as the signal of the anticipated level of the future short rates.
The yield curve may also be the indication of how well or how bad the economy is art essay performing. On Racial. A positive change in medieval, the slope of the yield curve would mean a negative change on the credit spread and expository essay profiling a negative change in the slope of the yield curve would mean an increase in the credit spread (Miloudi and Moraux (2009). Avramov, Jostova, and Philipov (2007) also said that the increase of the slope decreases the applied legislation legisprudence, credit spreads because the positive change in the slope of the yield curve would mean an increase in the spot rates. Also, an profiling, increase in the slope would mean that the economy is improving. In contrast to this, they also said that an essay, increase in the changes in the slope would mean an increase in future interest rates, lowering the valuation of a company, thus increasing the credit spreads (Avramov, Jostova, and Philipov, 2007). 2.1.4. Changes in the Lagged Returns on the PSEi.
2.1.5. Changes in the USD/PHP Exchange Rate. Yap and Gannon (2007) considers foreign exchange variables as an important factor as steep currency appreciations in which the debt is denominated (most of the time in US dollar), may directly impact a country's indebtedness immediately. Depreciation of the domestic currency may also cause a slump in the export revenues of the country which may further lessen its ability to service its debt. In the expository on racial profiling, investment decision of foreign currency bonds, the medieval art essay, most important factor to be considered is the foreign exchange risk since an on racial, appreciation of the home currency may reduce the forecasted profit. The study used the daily rate of return of the Japanese Yen and the British Pound as proxies of the foreign exchange rate given their strong trade relationship with Malaysia. The result of the entrance writing, study has shown that changes in Japanese Yen were more influential than the changes in British Pound for the case of US dollar-denominated Malaysian bonds. In the study of Batten et al. (2006), the exchange rate variable was significant only for spreads on Philippine bonds since the bonds issued by the country were not of the same credit class as other Asian issues. The variable proxies macroeconomic uncertainty thus a depreciation of the local currency (appreciation of the US dollar) is expected to be associated with an increase in credit spreads. It was found that the exchange rate is negatively related to the changes in the local stock market index and expository essay on racial positively related to changes in the credit spread.
This implies that an increase in art coursework evaluation, the exchange rate or a depreciation of the expository essay profiling, peso is associated with an increase in the credit spread and a decline in the stock index.A A A A A A A. As shown in the literature map, our study will focus on the Bond market, both the American and legisprudence philosophy practice theory the Philippine Bond Market. Expository Essay Profiling. We will be studying the determinants of Credit Spread Changes in the Philippine setting. Instead of getting the difference in the yield of a corporate bond and a government bond, we will use government bond from the United States and a government bond with the same tenor from the Philippine bond market. For the mla handbook of research papers, study, the expository profiling, dependent variable would be the Changes in mla handbook of research, the Credit Spread and the independent variables will be the changes in the 10-year US Government bond yield, changes in the slope of the yield curve, changes in expository essay on racial, the squared value of the 10-year US Government bond yield, changes in medieval art essay, the lagged returns of the PSEi, and the changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate. All of these independent variable were used in past studies and with this, the same variables shall be applied in the Philippine setting. One of the on racial, primary gap found by the researchers is evaluation that there are no, if not a few, studies existing on expository on racial, credit spreads in the Philippine bond market. Studies found are set in other bond markets from other countries. And so for this study, the mla handbook for writer papers, determinants on credit spread to be analyzed will be from the Philippine bond market. The journal articles on expository on racial, the study of art essay credit spreads used the corporate bonds' credit spread as a variable for their study.
Unfortunately in the Philippine setting, there is a scarce source of expository essay profiling data on corporate bonds. Knowing this information, the researchers shall instead use the credit spread of the government bonds, specifically USD Denominated ROP Bonds, for the study. Previous studies on the determinants of credit spread changes used data in art coursework, a weekly basis. For this research, daily data basis shall be applied for the variables instead of the weekly basis in order to avoid the expository on racial, problems in stationarity when regression is applied to the study. This chapter will discuss the art coursework, theory applicable to the study, the concepts included in the study, and the model the researchers will use in assessing the effects of the independent variables to expository essay on racial profiling the dependent variable. This chapter will also examine the possible relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variable. The main theory that will be discussed in the study is the risk and return theory. College Entrance Essay Writing Help. This states that the higher the risk of an investment, the higher the return the expository on racial, investors should receive. Credit spread is the difference between a corporate and a government bond yield of the same maturity (Lepone Wong, 2009). This spread measures the art coursework, credit risk and probability of default of the corporate bond.
The higher the credit spread between the bonds and the benchmark government bonds, the higher the risk of the bond to default, thus, a higher return should be given to the investor. Credit spread is the yield spread or difference in yield between different securities which stems from the different credit quality of securities (Wrobel, n.d.). The credit spread of a security is often quoted in on racial profiling, relation to a yield of a risk-free benchmark security. Art Essay. One factor that affects the credit spread is the probability of default of the security; the higher the spread of the security, the higher the essay, default risk. Other factors affecting credit spreads are the costs related to the use of credit products, the adjustment for the bond's lifetime, the liquidity of the college essay help, security, and essay on racial profiling the downgrade risk. Credit spread can be an indicator of the economy. When a credit spread is medieval wide between the risky security and the risk-free security, this implies that the market is adding more default risk which indicates a slow-down in the economy. Expository. On the other hand, when the medieval, credit spread is narrow between the profiling, risky security and the risk-free security, there will be less default risk on the risky security, therefore, lowering its credit spread which implies that the economy is growing. The bond yield is the rate of return the investor gets in holding the bond. There are different types of of constructing an essay bond yield which are the on racial, coupon rate, the current yield, the yield to maturity, and the yield to call. The coupon rate is the rate the issuer of the security will need to pay interest payments periodically.
The current yield is the rate of return the investors will expect in holding the security in a year. Of Constructing Examination. The yield to maturity is the expository on racial profiling, total return that the investors will get in holding the bond until maturity date. Lastly, the art essay, yield to call, only applicable in expository essay on racial, a callable bond, is the essay, interest rate the bond holder gets in holding the security until the call date. The type of yield that will be used in the study is the yield to maturity. The yield to maturity is the discount rate that equates the value of the bond with the present value of the stream of cash flows (interest and principal) (Reilly and Brown, 2009). As the price of the bond increases, the yield to maturity decreases and when the price of the bond decreases, the yield to maturity increases. This increase and decrease in the prices of the expository on racial, bond is due to the risk of the bond. Medieval Art Essay. When the price of the bond is below par value, there is more risk and is sold at a discount. When the price of the bond is above par value, there is essay on racial less risk and the bond is sold at a premium.
Yield curve is the college writing help, representation of the term structure of interest rates. This shows the relationship between the yield of the security and the time of essay maturity of the security. It is composed of Treasury bills, Treasury notes, and Treasury bonds. There are certain shapes of the art essay, yield curve which are: positive (normal yield curve), flat, negative (inverse), and humped. The yield curve can be useful in forecasting interest rates, detecting overpriced and underpriced securities, and for financial intermediaries. An upward-sloping yield curve can allow investors to look for opportunities to move away from long-term securities into investments whose market price is less sensitive to interest changes (Rose, 2008). On the other hand, a downward-sloping yield curve notifies the likelihood that there will be decline in the interest rates thus; increasing the prices of the bonds if the essay profiling, market's prediction of lower interest rates becomes true.
The yield curve can also detect overpriced and underpriced securities. If a security's yield lies above the yield curve, this means that the security is temporarily underpriced in applied essay in legal philosophy, relation to other securities with the same maturity. Essay On Racial Profiling. On the other hand, a security's yield lying below the yield curve means that the security is temporarily overpriced in relation to other securities with the same maturity. Lastly, a yield curve is important for financial intermediaries since they use it for profiting. The steeper the legislation philosophy theory, upward slope of the yield curve, the wider the spread between borrowing and lending rates and the higher the profit for the financial intermediary. A A A A A A. 3.2.4 Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index. The Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index (PSEi), formerly called Phisix, is the main stock market index in the Philippines. This is composed of a fixed basket of essay on racial profiling thirty common stocks of for writer listed companies, carefully selected to represent the general movement of the stock market (PSEacademy administrator, 2011). This is the benchmark in measuring the stock market performance in expository profiling, the country. The foreign exchange rate is the rate by which a currency is essay writing help pegged in another country's currency.
Exchange rates changes in response to the supply and demand conditions. If government agencies, corporations, and expository profiling individuals suddenly shifted their aggregate demand on a certain currency, or shifted their aggregate supply of that currency, the price will change (Madura, 2008). An aggregate demand on a currency will appreciate its value while an aggregate supply of a currency will depreciate the value. The risk associated with foreign exchange rate is the foreign exchange risk. This type of risk is due to the varying exchange rates between two currencies. Foreign exchange risk is the exposure of potential losses due to the devaluation of the local currency against the foreign currency. Usually, the ones that are mostly affected by this risk are the medieval art essay, investors, exporters and importers, and businessmen. Expository Essay Profiling. To manage this risk, people can trade local currencies to prevent having an exposure to foreign exchange risk.
They can also use hedging techniques, like forward contracts, to deal with the rhetorical precis essay, risk. a?†CSt = I?0 + I?1a?†USt + I?2a?†(USt)2 + I?3a?†Slopet + I?4a?†PSEi + I?5a?†USDPHP + Iµ. a?†CSt = changes in credit spread. a?†USt = changes in the 10-year U.S. government bond yield. a?†(USt)2 = changes in the squared value of 10-year U.S. government bond yield. a?†Slopet = changes in the yield of 10-year U.S. government bond less the yield of 2 year U.S. government bond. a?†PSEi = changes in the lagged returns on the PSEi. a?†USDPHP = changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate. In evaluating the model, the researchers will first use the Pearson Product Momentum Correlation Coefficient in determining the relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variable.
To provide more evidence on the relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variables, the researchers will use the expository essay on racial, Autoregressive and Moving Average (ARMA) Model for the regression to eliminate possible autocorrelation in art essay, the residuals. Before using the technique, Augmented Dickey-Fuller test will be used to examine if the data is stationary or not. The researchers will also use the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) Model for robustness checking to eliminate volatility clustering in the time-series data. Table 1 - A-priori Expectations of the Independent Variables to Credit Spread. Changes in the 10-year government bond yield.
The variable is negatively- related to credit spread because when the risk-free bond yield increases, the difference between the rate of the risky security and risk-free security narrows thus, lowering the probability of default. Changes in the slope of the yield curve. This variable is negatively-related to credit spread because when the difference between the 10-year and the 2-year yield increases, this should increase the future short rates causing a decrease in the credit spread. Changes in the lagged returns on the PSEi. This variable is negatively-related to credit spread because when the returns on the PSE Composite Index are positive, this means that the economy is expository essay good, thus, credit spreads should be low. Changes in the foreign exchange rate.
This variable is positively-related to rhetorical essay credit spread because depreciation in the home currency will mean that the home country (local currency) will have to pay more of the foreign country's currency thus, increasing the credit spread. 3.3.3 Operational Definitions. Augmented Dickey Fuller Test. - a statistical test that determines if the data is stationary or not. Pearson Product Momentum Correlation Coefficient. - A technique that measures the correlation of linearly-related variables. Autoregressive and Moving Average Model. - It notifies that the dependent variable is also reliant on its value in the previous time period and the value of the white noise error term in expository essay on racial, the previous time period.
Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity Model. - The conditional variance of the error term depends not only on the squared error term in the previous time period but also on its conditional variance in the previous time period (Gujarati, 2003). - The difference between the medieval, yield of profiling a risky security and a risk-free rate security with the same maturities. - This is the yield to maturity of the government bond. Slope of the Yield Curve. - The difference between the 10-year government bond yield and a 2-year government bond yield. Philippine Stock Exchange Index.
- The main stock market index in the Philippines that measures the performance of the stock market. - The rate in which the USD (Dollar) can be converted into PHP (Peso). This chapter illustrates the research design and sampling design used in the study, the data description and data collection of the study. This chapter will also discuss the method of data analysis used by the researchers as well as the methodological limitations evident in precis, the study. Correlational research and evaluative research are the research designs that the researchers will be using in the study. A correlational research will be conducted to determine whether the expository essay, independent variables have a significant effect on the dependent variable which is the credit spread changes. This research design establishes the relationship between the variables whether it is positive or negative. An evaluative research will also be adopted to legislation philosophy practice assess the performance outcome or impact of the independent variables to the credit spread while considering an adequate time span from 2005 to expository essay on racial profiling 2011, to of constructing an essay examination identify the effects accurately. The study covers ROP bonds, which are U.S. dollar-denominated bonds, issued from the years 2005 to expository essay on racial profiling 2011. Daily observations of the evaluation, variables are used which were obtained from Bloomberg. A ROP bonds pay out semi-annual coupons and have a 30/360 day-count convention.
Eleven bonds were issued within the sample period, all of which are incorporated into the study. The credit spread is expository estimated by college essay, the difference between these eleven ROP bonds and U.S. benchmark treasury bonds of the same maturities. 4.3 Data Description and Data Collection. The study will use daily observations of the variables covering the periods 2005-2011. Data for the credit spread, bond yield, slope of the yield curve and returns on the PSE composite indexA were all obtained from profiling Bloomberg. For the foreign exchange rate, the figures were sourced from OANDA. The dependent variable is the credit spread changes which is measured as the difference between the changes in the yields of the ROP bonds and U.S. Treasury bonds having the college writing, same maturities.
On the other hand, the independent variables are the bond yield, slope of the yield curve, lagged returns on the PSE Composite index and the foreign exchange rate. Innovations to interest rate factors, particularly changes in the bond yield and slope of the yield curve, are considered as the most important determinants of changes in the credit spread. The spot rate is proxied by the changes on the 10-year U.S. Profiling. treasury bond yield while the art coursework, changes in essay, the slope of the yield curve is art coursework calculated as the expository essay, difference between the changes in the yield of the 10-year and 2-year U.S. Treasury bond. The squared values of the bond yield are also included in the model to take into art essay account the nonlinear effects due to the curvature of the yields of the U.S treasury bonds. Changes in on racial profiling, the lagged returns on the PSE Composite Index are incorporated in the model to essay help determine the effect of the expository essay on racial, stock returns to the credit spread.
This variable serves as proxy for the expected future gains of the in legal legislation philosophy, economy. Lastly, historical Dollar against Peso (USD/PHP) exchange rates taken from OANDA are used for the foreign exchange rate variable as proxy for macroeconomic uncertainty. On Racial. A In the study of Batten et al. (2006), the legislation legisprudence philosophy practice, exchange rate variable was found to have significant effects to the spreads on essay on racial profiling, Philippine bonds whereas, Yap and Gannon (2007) considered foreign exchange risk an important factor in the investment decision of foreign currency bonds. For the applied in legal legisprudence philosophy theory, study, the researchers will conduct a correlation test using Pearson's Product Momentum Correlation Coefficient to expository essay on racial determine the relationship of the independent variables to the credit spread. It is usually referred as Pearson's r which is used for data measured on an interval or ratio scale (Jackson, 2011). The sign of the Pearson indicates the direction of the relationship either positive or negative, whereas the value indicates its strength (Lomax, 2007). A. Tests for stationarity would also be necessary since a non-stationary series would lead to spurious results from college writing help econometric tests. For the stationarity test, the researchers will use the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test, a statistical test which takes into profiling account the possible correlation in the error terms to determine if a series is stationary.
In case that results indicate non-stationarity, the essay, integration process will be applied wherein the profiling, series is differenced d times to applied essay legislation practice achieve stationarity. A time-series regression, specifically the Autoregressive and Moving Average (ARMA) Model, shall be applied in investigating the expository essay on racial profiling, effects of the explanatory variables to credit spread changes. The ARMA model is a combination of the medieval, Autoregressive and Moving Average scheme which informs that the dependent variable relies on its own previous values and a combination of the current and previous values of a white noise error term, which is a random error term having zero mean, constant variance, and no autocorrelation. Expository On Racial Profiling. The Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model was also applied for a more efficient re-estimation of the equation and robustness checking. In the GARCH model, the conditional variance of the art essay, error term not only relies on the squared error term in the previous time period but also on its conditional variance in the previous time period (Gujarati, 2003). The GARCH process exhibits heavy tails thus it can model both the conditional heteroscedasticity and heavy tailed distributions of financial market data (Ruppert, 2010). Investigations of the study of Yap and Gannon (2007) on expository profiling, the credit spreads and residuals from the equation reveal that some of the series exhibits autocorrelation which means that the spreads of the series are continuously influenced by past spreads. By using the ARMA model, the types of constructing an essay, autocorrelation shall be eliminated in the regression. Accordingly, the equation is extended with the inclusion of Autoregressive terms (AR) and Moving Average terms to specify the dependent variable, which is the credit spread changes, as a function of its past values.
In the event that the series shows evidence of possessing residual serial correlation, GARCH specifications should be applied since the models are still mildly misspecified. In effect, results would be sharpened as well as the significance of the variables tested in the mean regressions. Residual parameters and standard errors in the re-estimated equation are also expected to expository essay profiling become more efficient, exhibiting a normal distribution without serial correlations. 4.5 Methodological Limitations. Linear structural time-series models are unable to explain certain features common to financial data. Given that the conditional variance of the ARMA model is constant, it cannot capture the mla handbook for writer of research papers, volatility of the expository essay on racial profiling, time-series data.
Financial asset returns also tend to have heavy tail distributions which means that there is of research a larger probability of acquiring very large values. As the study uses daily data, volatility clustering in financial returns is evident because the persistence of conditional volatility tends to increase with the sample (Alexander, 2002) but, an ARMA linear regression does not accommodate volatility clustering. For all these reasons, another time-series model is on racial profiling considered, which is the GARCH model, since it has randomly varying volatility, exhibits heavy tails and eliminates volatility clustering (Ruppert, 2010).
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Racial profiling essay conclusions
Post-Secondary Russian Essay Contest. Students taking Russian in expository profiling, accredited colleges and college writing, universities are invited to participate in the eleventh annual National Post-Secondary Russian Essay Contest sponsored by the American Council of Teachers of essay on racial profiling, Russian. All students must pay a registration fee according to the following schedule: Students whose teacher is an ACTR member - $5.00 per registration. Students whose teacher is not an ACTR member - $7.50 per registration. Students may not register themselves, but can only be registered by a teacher. When registering your students, please consult the criteria below to select the appropriate level.
Teachers whose students are participating in the contest will receive directions and the essay topic in rhetorical precis essay, late January 2010. Students will write their essays between Feb. 1 and Feb. 15, 2010 at a time selected by the instructor at each institution. Students should not receive the essay topic until the time scheduled to write the essay. Judges will review the essays in March 2010 and winners will be announced by expository essay on racial April 15, 2010. Please note that students cannot use any books or notes and may not work together.
Essays must be written legibly in blue or black ink. The time limit for writing the essays will be one hour. The essays must be written in of research papers, blue or black ink on lined paper provided by essay teachers. Pencil is college writing help, not acceptable (as it won#39;t photocopy). After the students write the essay, teachers will make four photocopies of expository, each essay as per the directions and then send the originals and three photocopies to mla handbook Patricia Zody within 48 hours of the test date. All essays will be evaluated anonymously: no essay will be identifiable by expository essay on racial profiling the name or institution of the student who wrote it.
Gold, silver, bronze and honorable mention ribbon awards (certificates) will be presented for the best essays at college essay, each level. Here are sample essay topics from previous contests: An Important or Funny Thing Happened When A Person (Real or Fictional) Who Is Important to Me and Why? My Life Changed When Write a letter to a figure from on racial profiling, Russian history or a hero (heroine) from Russian literature Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in precis, its own way ( , -- Anna Karenina , Lev Tolstoy) Write about on racial profiling your favorite person or place (real or fictional) Teachers may not substitute students for those registered by of constructing the deadline. No refunds are available for students who don#39;t show up for the essay contest. Essays will be ranked according to levels as follows: Category 1: Non-Heritage Learners (those learners who do not and expository profiling, did not ever speak Russian in the home. Please take the time to calculate the number of hours that your students have studied Russian to place them in the proper category.) Level One: students who at the time of the essay contest will have had fewer than 100 contact hours of instruction in Russian (whether in college alone or in college and high school). (Please note that heritage learners of any Slavic language, including Russian, are not allowed to participate in rhetorical precis, this level and expository essay profiling, category of the contest.) Level Two: students who at the time of the essay contest will have had more than 100 contact hours, but fewer than 250 contact hours of instruction. (This is mostly students in second-year Russian.) Level Three: students who will have had more than 250 contact hours, but fewer than 400 contact hours of instruction. (This is art coursework evaluation, mostly students in profiling, third or fourth-year Russian.) Level Four: students who will have had more than 400 contact hours of art coursework evaluation, instruction. Essay On Racial! (This is mostly students in fourth-year or fifth-year Russian.) Category 2: Heritage Learners. Heritage Learners (1) - students who speak Russian with their families and who have NOT attended school in Russia or the former Soviet Union and have to writing help learn reading and writing skills after emigration. Heritage Learners (2): students who speak Russian with their families and who have attended school for fewer than 5 years in essay on racial, Russia or the an essay examination former Soviet Union and may have had to relearn reading and writing skills after emigration.
Heritage Learners (3): students who speak Russian with their families and who have attended school for 5 or more years in Russia or the expository former Soviet Union and have not had to relearn reading and writing skills after emigration. Judges will evaluate essays according to content (the ability to essay legislation practice express ideas in Russian and communicate information about the topic) and length, lexicon, syntax, structure (grammatical and orthographic accuracy), and originality or creativity. Expository Essay On Racial! Awards will be announced in the ACTR Letter and Web site, and the AATSEEL Web site. The best gold ribbon essays will be published in the ACTR Letter. Teachers with questions about the essay contest should contact: Director, Center for Language Studies. Art Essay! 700 College Street. Beloit, WI 53511. Expository On Racial! REGISTRATION FORM ACTR NATIONAL POST-SECONDARY RUSSIAN ESSAY CONTEST. Name of in legal practice theory, Institution: Name of Instructor: List of Participants: 1) Name, 2) Category, and 3) Level. Essay! Send to Patricia Zody, Center for rhetorical precis Language Studies, Beloit College, 700 College Street, Beloit, WI 53511 before January 29, 2010.
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construct art essay Are magazines for young men likely to reinforce stereotypical, 'macho' and sexist attitudes in their readers? Men don't define themselves as men in expository what they read, they define themselves as people who are into cars, who play golf or fish. Successfully launching a general men's magazine would be like finding the college entrance essay help, Holy Grail -- Zed Zawada (campaign 29/8/86 p.41) If this was the case in 1986 what has changed that has resulted in the men's magazine market becoming one of the fastest growing magazine sectors? The number of general interest magazine titles for men, such as Loaded , FHM , Men's Health , and GQ to name a few, has risen from expository essay profiling, obscurity over the past 10 years. Previously, the term 'men's magazine' referred to publications designed to interest men, such as car, fishing or DIY magazines. The new breed of magazines were aimed directly and overtly at a male readership, using masculinity as a marketing tool. Applied Legislation Legisprudence! These magazines are seen by some to be a negative force in society as they objectify women and are openly sexist.
This essay will argue that the emergence of on racial profiling, such titles is in response to a change in masculinity in society, reflected in both the possibility of producing such magazines and within the magazines themselves. The reasons for the inclusion of controversial material, besides that of entertainment, will become evident through looking at the development of men's magazines. This essay will then look both at the style and rhetorical content of the magazines in terms of the expository essay on racial, construction of masculinity they express, 'macho' or otherwise, and the visual and rhetorical representations of applied legislation, women. Examples from two titles on the market, GQ and essay Loaded , will be analysed. Precis Essay! GQ or Gentlemen's Quarterly is supposed to be at the top end of the market, and Loaded is expository essay on racial profiling leading the tabloid bunch! Do both represent women as sex objects and exhibit a particularly 'macho' masculinity, reinforcing negative stereotypes? If stereotypes are rife, this essay will finally consider whether this has any effect on the attitudes of the readers of men's magazines. Outlining several theories on how and medieval art essay why such magazines developed, will help explain why stereotypical and objectifying material is expository on racial profiling included within the publications. Theorists Judith Butler and Foucault argue that gender is fluid, and art essay can change within different contexts and over time.
A shift in expository on racial profiling the attitudes and lifestyles of British men over essay, the past 10 years opened up a market for men magazines. Tim Edwards asserts that it is the expansion in the concept and practice of men's fashion since the mid-1980's, which resulted in the emergence of style magazines such as GQ and Arena aimed specifically at the new style conscious male readership. Nixon states that the advertising/publishing nexus focusing on new male readers was an important site for the public formation and on racial development of general interest men's magazines. In order to create revenue, magazines have to attract advertisers and to attract advertisers they have to have a high readership. Magazines have found the Loaded formula i.e. beer, sex and babes, to be the college essay help, most successful, consequently even the more upmarket titles are beginning to expository essay on racial profiling, turn more 'laddish'. Others argue that the emergence of such magazines is an attempt to regain male dominance. Lacey suggests that it is the diminishing of men's power that has resulted in such publications.
The celebration of 'laddishness' is a desperate attempt to entrance essay, grasp what is essay left of applied legislation theory, traditional male identity. He states that the loss of on racial, power is a positive issue, but is worried that the danger is a reactionary backlash where angry men attempt to put 'their women' back in the kitchen. Further to this point Stevenson and Kenny ask 'do we live in an era of of research papers, greater risk' ? stating that feminism disrupts the certainties of the gender order. Profiling! This, along with the disappearance of jobs for life and the increased visibility of diverse sexuality's, are proving problematic for the once dominant male. The magazines are currently caught between an attempt to construct masculinity as a form of fundamentalist certitude, while simultaneously responding to a world where gender relations are changing. Men's magazines can therefore be seen as a cultural response to papers, social change. It has been argued that men's magazines are not solely responding to expository essay on racial profiling, gender changes, but are a reaction to feminism and an attempt for men to regain some of the power they lost through this movement, in other words to applied essay philosophy theory, return to a pre-feminist masculine ideal. As Stevenson puts it 'a 'blokelash' against feminism.'  Southwell, former editor of Loaded , admits otherwise, he insists Loaded was never conceived as an anti-feminist backlash, with the swaggering loutish lad ousting the essay, feminised new man. Immaterial of whether these publications were the result of a backlash against feminism, or whether there was merely a gap in market, masculinity is in crisis.
Roger Horrocks is precis essay one critic who believes that masculinity in western culture is in deep crisis. With the expository essay on racial, benefits masculine gender can bring, with it comes a mask or disguise. The emphasis on mla handbook of research papers, male dominance in public areas of life has tended to obscure the emotional poverty of many men's lives. Magazines tend to reflect this in that they portray only one side of masculinity, leaving out the emotional bit, and concentrating on the outward display of masculinity. Here one can see that the stereotyping of men within these magazines as macho male and ignoring the stereotypical 'emotional male' or even 'soft lad', can lead to problems and criticisms. Horrocks asserts that little attention has been paid to the stereotypes that are attached to men, or there has been the unspoken assumption that these are preferable. 'In this world, 'real men' are fearless and invulnerable, unburdened by expository emotion or sensitivity to others.' Buckingham is entrance writing help asserting that to be seen as a real man, you can not show emotion, and so men's magazines exclude sensitive issues and emotions in order to be seen as magazines for essay profiling 'real men'. In discussing the release of of research papers, a new magazine 'Deluxe' in expository on racial profiling an article for the media guardian, John Dugdale writes 'even though banning babes sacrifices the one sure-fire sales-boosting device in today's men's market, not least by reducing horny schoolboy appeal. Art Coursework Evaluation! Are there really 150,000 soft lads out essay profiling there.'  There appears to be a widely held assumption that if you don't mind the absence of scantily dressed babes from your magazine, then you are a soft-lad. 'What is obviously missing from mla handbook for writer of research, this celebration of one-night stands, obsessive consumerism and male bonding is how men's needs for expository reciprocity and emotional warmth are to be met.' (Stevenson et al, 2000) Metcalf and Humphries in their 1985 book ' The sexuality of men' describe a masculinity that doesn't seem too far removed from what magazines are portraying today.
The authors described a masculinity characterised by aggression, competitiveness, emotional ineptitude and coldness and dependent on an overriding and exclusive emphasis on penetrative sex. What also emerged was the side of masculinity that the magazines try to avoid, a sense of the fears, anxieties and pain expressed by these men in relation to established script of masculinity; anxieties about sexual performance, estrangement from emotions, and poor relations with fathers. By looking at entrance essay writing the style and content of two major men's magazines, the extent to which stereotypes, sexist attitudes and expository 'macho' masculinity's are used will become evident. Loaded , launched in May 1994, is evidently more anti-style conscious than the other titles, due to a more working class emphasis. Art Coursework Evaluation! It played a large part in expository the social construction of the New Lad, a masculinity which Edwards describes as: 'Selfish, Loutish and inconsiderate to applied essay legislation legisprudence philosophy practice theory, a point of expository on racial, infantile smelliness. He likes drinking, football and fucking, and in that order of preference. in rhetorical precis short he is expository essay profiling that most ghastly of all configuration, defensively working class which also means defensively masculine'. (Edwards, 1997)
GQ 's catch phrase is college 'the magazine for men with an essay profiling, IQ,' in which it takes pleasure in the more traditional masculinity, including coverage of art coursework evaluation, executive concerns and pitching itself at a more serious minded conservative older reader than the other titles. On Racial Profiling! At it's release GQ was organised around menswear and style, popular music was absent and the kind of figures interviewed or profiled in GQ tended to be traditional professionals rather than the media-fashion-art based individuals of other titles. Visualised representation of women were marginal. It is now evident that it has moved closer towards titles such as Loaded , taking on a more populist approach, but still trying to hold onto its glamour element, and maintain an interest in health and fashion. Edwards believes the primary role of men's style magazines is to encourage and entrance writing perpetuate spending amongst its readers, evident through the emphasis upon consumption as a means to join the new style elite, the high-profile advertising, and the visual attention paid to commodities. One must wear the right suit, visit the expository on racial, right shops, and get seen in art coursework evaluation the right apparel. This leads to the construction of masculinity in terms of commodities, leading ultimately to masculinity as a matter of how one looks and not what one does. Although Edwards was talking about a previous ilk of expository essay on racial profiling, magazines in the late Thatcherite era of rampant consumerism, the emphasis on commodities is still very apparent in today's magazines. There is a difference between the commodities promoted by each magazine.
GQ includes a section on mla handbook of research papers, 'motoring', 'interiors' and a 'style plus' feature, a fashion spread including a further commodity. On Racial! For example 'Tooled up' (April 2000) features the latest DIY tools. Figure 1 reveals two aspects of GQ , firstly their target market. The garden furniture featured is mla handbook of research aimed at the high earning, garden-proud individual. Secondly the feature uses women to make it more appealing to the reader. The subtitle states 'Garden feature doesn't have to be strictly for the birds once the expository essay profiling, summer is over.' The bottom picture includes an abandoned bikini top, and the top photograph features the bare legs of a women. Art Coursework! Here one sees that GQ also objectifies women and insinuates sex to try and sell it's product, and make a feature on furniture more appealing. Loaded on the other hand focuses on entertainment items, such as computer games, fashion accessories, such as watches and trainers, and personal items such as mobile phones. Figure 2 reveals the accoutrements of the Loaded man.
The model is young with large, innocent eyes staring straight into the camera, he is rather self-assured. His pose, with his hands raised, suggests he is admitting he is guilty of being a bit of a player (sexually), suggested by the pack of essay on racial, cards and the play boy wallet. Evaluation! His facial expression, which is rather cheeky, suggests he is on racial unperturbed by this revelation. This man is a ladies man, and he is not ashamed, in fact he is prepared with his condom carrying case, and his toothbrush! Theodor Adorno (1903-69) would be extremely disgruntled with men's magazines. Firstly, he would suggest that it is the art essay, culture industries that churn out these unsophisticated magazines, replacing the more critical art forms which might lead people to expository essay, actually question social life. Further, he would say that it is the culture industries that cultivate false needs in people. These are needs that can be fulfilled by the capitalist system, and replace and suppress the true needs of creativity, independence and genuine happiness. Entrance! Adorno would be unhappy with the commodities that the magazines promote, and the idea that you are the man you are through what you buy. Not only is this satisfying ones false needs, but it also displays commodity fetishism, in essay on racial that social relations and cultural experiences are objectified in terms of money. The readers are delighted by rhetorical essay products because of how much they cost.
Sexism is an infamous trait of men's magazines, and it is believed that this will inevitably produce sexist attitudes amongst the readers. The April 2000 edition of Loaded includes 'The Stockings World Cup' (Figure 3), a competition to expository essay profiling, find the winning stockings from types of constructing, '32 qualifiers played over 64 legs' . Expository Essay Profiling! The judges objectify the winner remarking 'Karen showed us how much they make us fancy her'. The only worth of this article was that readers got to see 32 pairs of stockings photographed. Southwell states that a lot of what could be called sexism in Loaded is just a joke, he continues 'if some reader takes it as normal conversation then they don't get it and they're never going to art coursework, get it' . But isn't this the problem? Those who take these derogatory comments concerning women at face value will think this is normal behaviour and so transfer such attitudes into the real world. Lacey believes so, 'whether the distancing effect provided by irony legitimises Loaded , and its ilk, is on racial profiling doubtful; irony appears to art essay, be lost on the bog standard 16 year old.'  Peter Howorth, the previous editor of Esquire attempts to justifies the on racial, objectification of women by saying 'Any good magazine must offer a balance of content, and part of that balance, if it is to reflect the interests of men, will inevitable be articles on types of constructing an essay, beautiful women' . This suggests that the magazines are just reflecting the expository essay, readers interests. Feminists have argued that whatever the psychology of the men who rape, the background to its prevalence must be located in societies which define 'masculinity' at entrance least in essay on racial part, in essay terms of the assertion of essay on racial, heterosexual power, and which continue to produce images across all forms of representation depicting women as the prototypical object of sexual desire, men as its prototypical subjects. This can be seen in figure 4, where Jordan, merely famous because she is beautiful, is seen staring at the viewer in essay a pose which could be seen as soft porn. Segal argues in response that masculine power may be privileged in essay on racial our culture, but men are not merely sexual predators, nor women merely sexual prey, and that this view fails to accommodate contradiction and entrance writing diversity. A further characteristic evident through the style and content of both magazines, and all men's magazines in essay general, is essay in legal legislation practice that they assert the heterosexuality of their readers.
Edwards states this is due to the high level of anxiety concerning the possibility of off-putting their heterosexual readers if homosexuality is too overtly or openly condoned. The magazines stress the virtues of a single lifestyle, as Stevenson et al state 'The great prize of bachelor hood is represented as a life where one has little responsibility for others and where one is truly free to do as one chooses, further, marriage is viewed as a form of social constraint, preventing men in their early 30's from living a life of consumption and sexual freedom.'  This could be seen as merely reflecting society rather than truly advocating single life. Whereas Edwards sites consumption as the major site of masculinity's in magazines, Sean Nixon believes that it is within the expository essay on racial profiling, fashion photography that the new coding's of masculinity, and there is more than one, are most extensively elaborated. Menswear is seen primarily in terms of utility. The main example is the suit, both a symbol of masculine sexuality and essay in legal philosophy a uniform of respectability. GQ focus quite strongly on the suit within its fashion pages.
Figure 4 depicts Brett Anderson, the lead singer of suede, modelling Gucci's latest collection. By using Brett as a model it raises the profiling, profile of the shoot immediately, and involves an element of aspiration. In this photograph Anderson is situated in a large, panelled room. For Writer Of Research Papers! Many signifiers within the picture go against essay profiling the 'macho' male mould. Anderson looks introspective and pensive, and the full body shot reveals a vulnerability.
Figure 6is a sharp contrast to the previous photograph, it depicts a fashion shoot titled 'lounging' which featured in Loaded (April, 2000). It depicts casual wear, as opposed to the respectable, working suit featured in GQ . All that is featured of the model is his feet, but he is obviously relaxing on a sofa with his feet up, suggesting an precis, untroubled, relaxed man. The main element of the photograph is the expository essay, extreme close up of the women's face on the television screen, her lips are parted and her eyes are closed. It is a very sexual face, again highlighting the fact that women are used throughout the magazine, even within fashion shoots, as objects for men to look at, and college essay help highlighting the laddish masculinity of the male. Edwards believes that Loaded is taken too seriously by those who don't know better. But does the content of Loaded effect its readers? Adorno would argue that such material keeps its audience passive and preserves the dominant of capitalism at the expense of true happiness for the reader.
Foucault, would structure his argument around power. In 'The History of Sexuality' he argued that people do not have power implicitly, individuals engage in it. Profiling! He argues that there is applied in legal legislation legisprudence theory no hierarchical power establishments stating: 'power comes from below; there is no binary and all-encompassing opposition between rulers and profiling ruled at the root of power and serving as a general matrix - no such duality extending from the top down and reaching on more and more limited groups to the very depths of the social body'.  (Foucault,1981) Further, he would argue that the individual person has power to resist the media, 'where there is essay power there is resistance .' This rejects the elitist view of the Frankfurt school, who believed the expository on racial, culture industry had an effect of essay in legal legislation legisprudence philosophy, anti-enlightenment, Adorno asserts 'it impedes the development of autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for themselves.'  John Fiske is another theorist who would reject Adorno's notion of a mass negative effect on the audience of mass media, and would see the audience as individuals who read their own meanings into a text. Expository On Racial! In his work 'Moments of Television' Fiske discusses his theories in relation to art coursework, television, but these can also be applied to other media. 'Making sense of popular television, then, is the process of on racial profiling, activating meanings from it, and this process is controlled within more or less determined boundaries by the socially situated viewer. adequate space for different people to art essay, make different meaning'. (Fiske, 1989) Further he would reject Adorno's notion of corporations deciding what is popular culture and on racial profiling stress that popular culture is made by the people for the people.
'It cannot conceive of the text as a site of in legal legislation philosophy, struggle for the power to make meanings, or of the notion that what finally determines the meanings and expository essay pleasures provoked by a text is the social situation of the viewer-reader, not the interests of the producers and their ideological investment in art coursework consumer capitalism.' (Fiske, 1989) It is evident that magazines for expository young men do include stereotypical images of for writer, both men and women. They depict a fearless, competitive, 'laddish' masculinity, ignoring the emotional, sensitive male, and expository essay women are depicted as objects for men's contemplation and enjoyment. But it should be remembered that Stereotypes can be seen as an unavoidable part of mla handbook for writer papers, mass media representation. Further these magazines are merely trying to entertain the reader, they are not seriously on a crusade to return to a pre-feminist ideal, or to harm anyone in an attempt to expository, provide entertainment. Rhetorical Precis Essay! Former editor of Loaded James Brown describes the magazine as 'all about having the best fucking time of your life.'  Further, the inclusion of sexist material and stereotypical images are enjoyable to the reader but are not likely to change their attitudes towards society. The readers have the power to reject such material and are able to make their own, individual meanings from the messages within men's magazines. Therefore, men's magazines can be seen merely as entertainment for, and an escape for, the heterosexual male. Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993)
Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in essay on racial profiling Media Guardian, March 30 1998. Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998. Edwards, T. Art Essay! Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and expository Cultural Power (London, 1989) Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and rhetorical Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) Horrocks, R. Expository Essay On Racial Profiling! Masculinity in papers Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) Kenny, M. and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000)
Lacey, N. Essay! ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, winter 1996, pp. In Legal Practice! 16-17. Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and expository essay Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (London, 1996) Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. Art Coursework! 'The Politics of expository essay profiling, 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in entrance essay writing European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000)
Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) Van Zoonen, L. 'Gender and Media Reception', in Feminist Media Studies (London, 1994) Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, April 2000. Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, July 2000. Southwell, T ed. ' Loaded ' magazine, April 2000.  Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.72.  Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and expository on racial Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.5.
 Nixon, S. In Legal Philosophy! Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.145.  Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, Winter 1996, pp. 16-17.  Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. Essay Profiling! 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.135.
 Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.377.  Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J. ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.137.  Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2.  Horrocks, R. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) p.26.  Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and art coursework evaluation The Media (Manchester, 1993) p.89.  Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in essay profiling Media Guardian, March 30 1998, p.4.  Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and essay writing Brooks, K. Expository Profiling! 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.379.  Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) p.295.  Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.82.
 Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.74.  Gauntlett, D. 'Theory, gender and identity resources - Theodor Adorno' at http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-ador.htm (accessed: 9 November 2000)  Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15.  Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, pp. 16-17.  Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in medieval art essay European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.376.  Segal, L. 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K. ed., Identity and expository Difference (London, 1997) p.208.  Segal, L 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K, ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208.
 Edwards, T Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.75.  Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.378.  Nixon, S Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.4.  Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in evaluation Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and profiling Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) p.166.  Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) p.54.  Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the art essay, audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.58.  Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.61.  Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in expository on racial Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. Unfortunately, most of the images from the original essay could not be reproduced here. Essay Philosophy Theory! This is what they were:
Figure 1 GQ interiors 'Keep off the grass' in GQ July 2000. Figure 2 Loaded fashion article 'Picked Pockets' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 3 'The Stockings worldcup' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 4 'Who is Kate Price' article on profiling, Jordan in Loaded April 2000. Figure 5 GQ fashion spread 'He's in Fashion' in GQ April 2000. Figure 6 Loaded Fashion Spread 'Lounging' in Loaded April 2000.
This essay was written in art coursework evaluation autumn 2000, when Lucy Brown took the module 'Communications Theory' at the Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds, UK.
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Essay Writing Advice (for ECPE and C2 EFL exams) Here we tell you how to write an essay that will get good marks in an English language (EFL/ESL) exam such as the Michigan ECPE. The advice would be the essay on racial profiling same for the essays that candidates have to write in other EFL/ESL exams such as the IELTS, TOEFL and Cambridge CPE exams. First, let's have a look at some actual ECPE exam writing tasks so that we can see the rhetorical essay different types of essay that we might have to write. Topic 1: In most families there is one family member who doesn't follow society's rules and often embarrasses the rest of the essay on racial profiling family by doing or saying something unusual or funny. Describe one of your relatives who is evaluation like this.
Include several examples of this person's behaviour. Topic 2: Pesticides are chemicals used to kill insects that damage food crops. Some people say farmers should not use pesticides because the pesticides harm the environment and people who eat the food. Others say that if we stop using pesticides, insects will destroy large quantities of essay on racial profiling our crops. Precis. Do you think farmers should stop using pesticides?
Explain the reasons for your opinion. Topic 1: There is a saying, Curiosity killed the cat, meaning that when a person is overly curious (eager to learn, know, or investigate something or someone) it can lead to trouble. Describe a situation when curiosity got you or someone you know into trouble. Topic 2: The production, distribution and expository essay profiling use of illegal drugs is an international problem that affects almost every country. What actions should be taken to mla handbook for writer of research, reduce the production, distribution or use of illegal drugs around the world? Discuss.
Topic 1: Everyone has different opinions about what makes someone a good parent. What three qualities do you think are the expository essay on racial most necessary to be a good parent? Why are these qualities important? Discuss, giving examples. Topic 2: Unemployment is a problem facing many countries today. Should the government and/or businesses take an active role in reducing unemployment? Discuss, providing reasons. Topic 1: Some psychologists believe that there is more to in legal legislation philosophy practice, intelligence than what traditional intelligence tests measure (mathematical verbal ability). They say there are many kinds of profiling intelligence and rhetorical precis many ways to be smart.
Besides mathematical and essay on racial linguistic intelligence, in what other ways do you think people are smart? Be specific in your discussion and provide concrete examples. Topic 2: Most people agree that it is important for co-workers to have good relationships. However, a recent survey suggested that friendships at work can also cause problems. In what ways can friendships at work be harmful. Discuss, giving specific examples. 2004 (Only one topic provided in the sample from ELI-UM) The United States government recently passed a law that would punish schools whose students do poorly on national exams. Some people think that schools should not take all the blame.
In your opinion, what factors influence students' performance? Discuss, giving specific examples to support your point of view. 2010 Topic 1. Art Essay. Some people believe that body language shows more about peoplea€™s true feelings than spoken language. Body language includes peoplea€™s facial expressions, hand gestures, and essay on racial posture. Do you believe we can tell more from body language than from what people say? Be specific and applied essay in legal legisprudence philosophy give concrete examples in your response. Topic 2. Every generation of people is different from the previous one. Essay Profiling. What is one important way in which your generation is different from your parentsa€™ generation?
How will this difference affect your country or culture? Give specific details and reasons to of constructing, support your viewpoint. Looking at these examples, there are two obvious types of on racial profiling essay question: descriptive and discursive (i.e. presenting arguments and opinions). Some students who have experience of creative writing in their own language may find it easy to write the descriptive essay, but in our experience the art coursework evaluation majority of essay on racial students feel more comfortable with the discursive essay, partly because it is usually possible to use a formula and a number of set phrases. Art Coursework Evaluation. Note that there is not always a descriptive essay option, but (as far as we know) there will always be at least one discursive essay task.
On the essay rest of this page we will concentrate on the discursive essay. Plannning can seem like a waste of time, but it isn't, especially when time is short and there is no possibility of precis essay redrafting the essay. So after you have made sure that you have understood the topic correctly, give yourself a couple of minutes to note down some ideas you could mention in your essay. If you can quickly think of five or six, pause to decide which two or three you want to expository essay profiling, develop in art coursework evaluation, your essay. Choose ideas that you know you have the essay on racial profiling vocabulary to discuss. Types Of Constructing Examination. If it is appropriate or necessary to mention examples, choose ideas that you know you have examples for. You will get marks for how well-organised your essay is, which means you are likely to lose marks if you just start writing about the first idea that comes into your head. Every discursive essay needs an on racial introduction and a main body. Normally a final paragraph that rounds off the essay is in legal legislation practice needed, but examiners know that time could easily run out before you manage to profiling, round off your essay. Not having a concluding paragraph will probably not matter much; not having a good introduction will matter a great deal. Begin by rhetorical precis essay redescribing the phenomenon, the trend or the debate that is the on racial focus of the types essay question.
In a short ECPE essay this might only need one or two sentences. In the past, it seemed obvious to many that the expository essay only reliable test of types intelligence was one which assessed a person's ability to reason, especially the ability to see patterns in words, numbers and symbols. In recent years, however, there has been a growing suspicion that those IQ tests assume a conception of intelligence that is too narrow. End your introduction either by: 1 briefly stating the point of expository on racial view you are going to examination, defend. As I see it, musical and sporting abilities are two of the skill areas that deserve to be regarded as forms of intelligence. 2 stating what you are going to do in the rest of the on racial essay. In this essay I will look at two skill areas that deserve to be regarded as forms of rhetorical precis essay intelligence. 3 stating the two different points of view that you are going to consider. Although the expository essay on racial vast majority of farmers look upon pesticides as invaluable, some consumers and pressure groups have spoken out against them. 4 stating the question you are going to answer.
This raises the question of whether the benefits of pesticides outweigh their drawbacks. If the essay question specifically asks about your opinion, it might be better to briefly state this at the end of the introduction, without giving any details or arguments (but it is not absolutely necessary, especially if you don't have a firm opinion). If you want to look at different points of view before you weigh them up and give your final assessment, it might be better to use techniques three and four above. This needs two paragraphs, each of mla handbook for writer papers which should develop one point. Depending on profiling, the essay task, you might need to describe examples (as in the question about intelligence), discuss different points of view, describe causes, make suggestions, and give reasons for your point of view.
Below are examples of evaluation paragraphs that do each of these things. The exceptional bodily control seen in some athletes and dancers could definitely be viewed as a form of intelligence. On Racial. The ability of a ballerina, for rhetorical precis essay, instance, to on racial profiling, maintain perfect balance and turn her movements into a work of art can only be developed with years of strenuous training. Essay In Legal Practice Theory. In a sense, ballet has its own language, and it seems reasonable to compare the skill of profiling using this language with the skill of using the verbal language that has been traditionally tested when measuring a person's IQ. Applied Essay Legislation Legisprudence Philosophy Theory. Admittedly, performing in a ballet does not involve as much thought as solving problems in an IQ test, but that does not seem to me to be a good reason to exclude this as a form of intelligence. Discussing different points of view. There are those who argue that the government should not interfere much in the economy, even if there are concerns about the level of unemployment.
It is said that the essay rate of unemployment will fall naturally if there is economic growth, and the best way to guarantee economic growth is to allow the market to develop without government interference. Those with this point of mla handbook view accept that the on racial profiling government has a responsibility, but they insist that it should not go beyond providing a minimal unemployment benefit to those who are temporarily out of work. Describing causes and making suggestions. One of the reasons why some children fail at essay school is poverty. Students will only expository essay on racial profiling, make good progress if they do their homework well, but a child from a large and poverty-stricken family who does not have a quiet room at essay help home in essay profiling, which to study will not be able to essay in legal legisprudence practice theory, do her homework well. Furthermore, in poor families the parents sometimes have a very low level of essay profiling education and may even have a negative opinion about the importance of education. In these cases, they will not be able to college entrance writing help, give the help and encouragement that the child needs. Giving reasons for your point of view. One very powerful argument against pesticides is that they are harmful to expository essay, humans. Chemicals can only be used as pesticides if they are toxic either to entrance essay writing help, plants or animals. Expository. These are poisons, and it is hardly surprising that chemicals that are poisonous to some forms of plant life, for instance, also have detrimental effects on human health.
Eating rice that has been sprayed during storage and transport to prevent it being eaten by insects may not make us ill immediately, but by continually eating sprayed fruit and vegetables it is almost certain that we increase our risks of suffering from cancer. Use this paragraph to re-emphasize the main point or points you want to make, or to weigh up the opinions presented earlier in the essay. Then add a comment about, for instance, why this is so important, or about how difficult or easy it will be to art essay, change things, or about the likely consequences if we do nothing. In conclusion, for the sake of both the environment and human health drastic reductions in our use of pesticides must be made. Expository Essay On Racial Profiling. Admittedly this will not be easy, since they have become such an art coursework evaluation important part of modern agriculture. However, if there is enough investment in expository on racial profiling, research into alternatives I am optimistic that we will be able to phase out the use of college these harmful toxins. Try to avoid simply repeating what you have already said. This can be particularly difficult, especially when the essay task merely involves describing different aspects of something (like the essay on racial profiling forms of intelligence). To sum up, it is clear that the legisprudence theory ability to do the old-fashioned IQ tests is not the only form of intelligence. Not only are music and movement areas where we can see how smart people are, but there are also many others. It is wonderful that we are now appreciating this variety instead of giving a privileged place to one narrow set of abilities.
When writing academic essays the usual advice is to avoid expressions that are considered informal. Profiling. For instance, expressions with get are considered quite informal, so instead of saying kids will get bad marks, it would be better to say, children will receive a poor grade. One good reason for following this advice is that most of the language you have been learning on for writer papers, your proficiency course is formal, and so by choosing a formal register (as we call it) you give yourself more opportunities to profiling, show what you have learnt on the course. However, you may be surprised to see that the sample essay from types an essay examination, Michigan which was given an honors grade begins with a very informal conversational style. OK, so your son got a low score in his IQ tests. Don't be discouraged since this does not mean he is not intelligent. It simply means they may not have tested his main intelligence. More and expository more reassuring news is coming from new research.
These new studies indicate that there is more to intelligence than the traditional mathematical and linguistic intelligence. In his notes, the practice examiner calls this a strong beginning, but not everybody would agree. Essay. (By the way, the rest of that essay didn't use a conversational style.) Our advice is to use more formal and sophisticated language wherever you can because this will give better proof that you have become a proficient user of the legislation legisprudence philosophy theory kind of expository essay profiling academic English that makes up most of the ECPE exam. Do make sure you have understood the task correctly. Do ask if you are not sure about the for writer of research task. Do spend a couple of minutes thinking of on racial profiling ideas, choosing the best ones and the order you will discuss them in. Do try to have a good introduction. This creates the types first impression on on racial profiling, the examiner, and first impressions are very important. Do show that you appreciate how complex the topic is (vital if you want to get a rating of A or B) Do make sure that each paragraph in the main body of your essay has a clear topic.
Do develop your ideas by essay legislation practice theory giving arguments for the opinions you mention, and/or giving examples, or drawing a contrast, or by acknowledging the opposite essay profiling point of view (if you have not planned to do that in the following paragraph). Of Constructing An Essay Examination. Do imagine that you are writing for someone who is not quite as well-informed as you are, so that you really have to make your points clear. Do try to expository on racial profiling, use a good range of vocabulary. Do not just use the simplest expressions that come to mind first, and avoid repeating the same words if you can. Do find ways to avoid the sort of medieval art essay repetition seen here: A major health hazard nowadays is pesticides. Pesticides are widely used in modern agriculture. Do use expressions such as On the one hand, Secondly, By contrast, Furthermore, Last but not least, All in all, etc, where appropriate, to make the expository essay on racial connection between your sentences perfectly clear. See our list of useful phrases for essays. Do vary the length of your sentences. Precis. If all your sentences are either very short or very long, the essay will be boring to read.
Do use some of the lovely proficiency structures you have learnt throughout the course. See our essay grammar structures to essay on racial profiling, get a few ideas. Do not use phrases like, As I said above, which just prove that either you didn't plan the essay or the plan was a bad one. Rhetorical Precis. Do not use extremely general sentences that say nothing about your particular topic (sentences such as There are two sides to every coin. Everything has its drawbacks.
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